Vitamin D3, Alpha Vitamin for Poultry in its Most Active Form
Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is the inactive form of vitamin D that can be ingested through diet or be generated endogenously in the skin when exposed to UV light. Vitamin D is converted into its active form 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2 D3), following a two-step hydroxylation process mediated by two key enzymes, 25-hydroxylase and 1α-hydroxylase. The first hydroxylation occurs in the liver, which converts cholecalciferol at the 25-C position to form 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D). The subsequent hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol occurs at the 1-C position and is mediated by 1α-hydroxylase in the kidneys to produce 1,25-(OH)2 D3, the active form of vitamin D (Alexandra and Barbara, 2013).
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for the proper metabolism of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), and the maintenance of normal skeletal integrity (Bikle, 1994). Vitamin D also plays a role in Ca and P absorption, regulation of parathyroid hormone, bone mineralization and mobilization, and it controls the incidence of bone disorders (Garcia et al., 2013). In fowls, vitamin D is responsible for normal growth, egg production, shell quality, and reproduction.
Layers are usually maintained indoors and do not receive enough sunlight to convert 7-dihydrocholesterol to sufficient levels to supply their vitamin D requirements. This is why vitamin D is routinely added to layer feeds, which is essential for the maintenance of egg production, hatchability, eggshell formation, and calcium homeostasis.
Which are the deficiency diseases of vitamin D in birds?
The two most prominent forms of vitamin D are ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3). Vitamin D is an important nutrient for chickens, especially for growing chicks and laying hens.
The inadequacy of vitamin D in birds results in rickets, retarded growth, soft and rubbery beak, hypocalcemia, parathyroid hyperplasia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, a marked expansion of epiphyseal growth plates including cartilage hypertrophy, failure of calcification of cartilage and osteoid, and fibrous osteodystrophy.
In hens, a vitamin D deficiency adversely affects egg production and causes calcium deficiency. The need for vitamin D depends to a large extent on the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The vitamin D needs of poultry are increased several folds by inadequate levels of calcium and (or) phosphorus or by improper ratios of these minerals in the diet.
How does vitamin D metabolize in the body?
Cholecalciferol is the most common form of vitamin D added to feeds. After absorption by the intestinal mucosa, it is transported to the liver, where it is hydroxylated in position 25, resulting in 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH) cholecalciferol). This metabolite is directed to the kidneys and hydroxylated at carbon 1, originating the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 cholecalciferol). Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of a calcium-binding protein in the intestine.
Dynamic Alpha, a bio-enhanced natural D3 booster
It is a blend of Phytoconstituents (Natural absorbance enhancers), contains hydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D3 (Calcitriol) and some amount of free and conjugated forms as glycosides from plant origin.
Why is it better than a regular vitamin D?
During the metabolic transformation of the vitamin D from calcitriol in the liver and kidneys, the effectiveness and level of vitamin reduces in the bloodstream. The active form 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (calcitriol) of Dynamic alpha allows these two stages to be bypassed. It improves the vitamin D3 uptake and is delivered faster in the blood serum.
Additionally, Dynamic alpha components improve micelles formation which results in more absorption of liposoluble vitamins. It maintains homeostasis of Ca : P in body, improves bone density, increases egg shell thickness and vitamin D levels of eggs.
Experimental results confirmed that supplementation of poultry diets with Dynamic alpha, natural and safe active form of vitamin D yields healthy, more productive birds, and enriched eggs, supporting higher profit margins to the farmers.
Benefits and features
- Improves growth and laying performance
- Maintains homeostasis of Ca:P in the body
- Increases hatchability and day-old chick weight
- Increases bone density and maintains its strength
- Helps in the development and maintenance of body, beak and feathers
- Helps in preventing egg damage by increasing the shell strength of the eggs
- Improves vitamin D3 content of the eggs