Challenging Re-emergence of Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry
Losses and Severity of Clostridial Toxins
Refraining the use of antibiotics in poultry feed has aggravated outbreaks of Necrotic enteritis (NE) even more often. NE is an acute Clostridium infection characterized by severe necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. The disease begins suddenly, with a sharp increase in the death rate. The disease usually persists in a flock for 5–10 days, and mortality is 50%. The causative agent is the gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic bacteria Clostridium perfringens. There are two primary Cl. perfringens types, A and C, associated with NE in poultry.
Pathogenesis and clinical signs
Cl. perfringens is a nearly ubiquitous bacteria readily found in soil, dust, faeces, feed, and used poultry litter. It is also a normal inhabitant of the intestines of healthy chickens and turkeys. The enterotoxaemia that results in NE most often occurs either after a change in the intestinal microflora or from a condition that results in damage to the intestinal mucosa (eg, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis, salmonellosis, parasitic infection, etc).
Chickens at the age of 25 weeks are usually affected, NE is also encountered in hens particularly near the period of the beginning of egg-laying or peak egg-laying, most commonly associated with coccidiosis. In acute cases, marked congestion of the liver, responsible for its dark red to black appearance, is present. Intestinal content is bloody, mixed with necrotic debris and gas bubbles. The diagnosis is based on distinctive gross lesions. Toxins produced by the bacteria cause damage to the small intestine, liver lesions, and mortality.
While researchers still paving a way to develop a substitute as functional as antibiotics, administration of selected probiotics or competitive cultures has been used successfully to both prevent and treat clinical necrotic enteritis (presumably for the prophylactic proliferation of Cl. perfringens).
NOVAPRO, a natural blend of probiotics for digestion and gut health.
The probiotics used in NOVAPRO (viz. Bacillus subtilis, B. coagulants and B. pumilus) are GRAS qualiﬁed in the US and qualiﬁes the criteria of QPS as per EFSA for EU countries. They are highly heated stable and forms an endospore to survive extreme environmental conditions of temperature and desiccation.
How does NOVAPRO work as a Non-antibiotic Growth Promoter?
Bacillus subtilis, B. coagulants and B. pumilus are known for their ability to degrade proteins extra-cellularly. They produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) which help in the inhibition of certain kinds of entero-pathogens that are harmful to poultry. This combination gets quickly established in the gut, provide growth of friendly bacteria, reduces intestinal pH and drives out harmful pathogens like Cl. perfringens, E. coli and Salmonella species. Additionally, the probiotics peptides enhance immune responses preventing the growth of pathogens.
Features and Beneﬁts
– Probiotics stay viable in water for a longer duration
– It has proven compatibility with antibiotics, anti-microbial growth promoters, coccidiostats and acidiﬁers
– Supports gut health and immune system
– Can withstand pH ﬂuctuations from 3.8 to 9.5
– Low inclusion rate, no withdrawal period and can be administered throughout the lifecycle
– 1 g per litre of drinking water
– 150 – 200 g / tone of feed